UOP – Unit Operations
The Armfield Unit operations range provides a series of products designed to allow in depth teaching and investigation into the individual basic steps in a process relating to Chemical engineering and associated fields.
Each product can be considered to have a single function in a potentially multiple step process, involving a physical change or chemical transformation such as separation, crystallization, evaporation, filtration, distillation, extraction, absorption and drying.
UOP4-MkII – Solid-Liquid Extraction Unit
The Armfield UOP4 MkII is designed to demonstrate a simplified version of the moving-bed leaching process used by many industrial solid/liquid extraction systems. The process used is a continuous multi-stage process, which gives counter current flow of the solvent and the solid phase. A batch extraction vessel is also incorporated to allow demonstration of fixed-bed leaching with either open or closed loop circulation of the solvent. The effects of temperature, throughput rate and the effect multiple stages can all be investigated.
AC1 – Air compressor (Optional)
UOP5-MkII – Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit
This unit provides an introduction to the operation of an industrial type of liquid/liquid extraction system. A vertical column is used to contact two essentially immiscible liquids flowing counter-currently through Raschig ring packing. Either liquid can be selected to be the continuous phase.
Traditionally this has been difficult to demonstrate in the laboratory, requiring the use of highly toxic, expensive and / or environmentally damaging solvents. The Armfield UOP5-MkII introduces a system using Kerosene (Paraffin) which is simple, safe and inexpensive.
AC1 (Air compressor)
UOP7-MkII – Gas Absorption Column
A pilot-scale apparatus enabling familiarity with the characteristics of packed tower hydrodynamics and absorption processes. The Armfield gas absorption column has been designed to demonstrate the process of gas absorption, desorption and stripping. The Absorption Column is scaled so that teaching exercises can be completed in a typical laboratory class period, while at the same time capable of demonstrating full-scale plant behaviour. The system is supplied as standard with electronic control of fluid flow, electronic measurement of Co2 concentration and full computer control and data logging.
UOP8 – Computer Controlled Tray Dryer
The most commonly used industrial method of drying solids in bulk consists of passing a hot air stream over fixed trays of wet material. This small pilot-scale tray dryer uses this method and is designed for laboratory training programmes. Operating conditions may be varied in a way that provides data demonstrating both theoretical and practical aspects of industrial drying practice. This equipment is applicable to the unit operations laboratory and also to food technology education and research.
UOP3CC & UOP3BM – Distillation columnsTwo laboratory-scale distillation columns enabling safe operation of a real industrial process. A continuous distillation column, which also performs batch experiments, can be controlled manually or externally by a PC. Individual loops can be controlled using an industrial PLC or a PID controller.
A batch-only version is suitable for teaching the fundamentals of distillation. Both versions incorporate flameproof devices and intrinsically safe circuits plus feature plate and packed columns together with the display of temperatures on each of the eight sieve plates in the column.
UOP6-MkII – Basic Water Cooling Tower
The Armfield UOP6-MKII Basic Water-Cooling Tower has been specifically designed to give students an appreciation of the construction, design and operational characteristics of a modern forced draught evaporative cooling system. The unit is also an excellent example of an open system through which two streams of fluid (water and air) flow in counter-current directions with heat and mass transfer from one stream to the other. The system is supplied as standard 1/3 height and 2/3 height packing in addition to full height packing for comparison.
The tower is fully instrumented with electronic sensors and is operated and controlled via a USB port on a PC
UOP6-MKII-23 Packing characteristics accessory (Optional)
UOP12 – Filtration Unit
The Armfield filtration unit demonstrates the principles of batch filtration using a fully functional plate and frame filter system. A continuous, tangential flow microfiltration unit using a hollow fibre filtration cartridge is also available as an option. Both types of filter are widely used in the commercial world.
UOP12-10 – Tangential Flow Filter Accessory
UOP14-MKII – Crystallisation Unit
Crystallisation is a valuable process in Chemical Engineering where the separation of one or more of the components from a liquid mixture is required. The Armfield UOP14-MkII demonstrates this process in the laboratory so that students may gain a thorough understanding of this industrial technique. The UOP14-MkII system demonstrates an industrially important type of crystallisation, namely solution cooling crystallisation.
UOP14-11 – Continuous Feed Accessory
UOP14-12 – Buchner Filtration Accessory