HT11–Linear Heat Conduction / HT11C-Computer Controlled Linear Heat Conduction

 

HT11–Linear Heat Conduction / HT11C-Computer Controlled Linear Heat Conduction

The Armfield Linear Heat Conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steady-state conduction in one dimension.

Description

The Armfield Linear Heat Conduction accessory has been designed to demonstrate the application of the Fourier Rate equation to simple steady-state conduction in one dimension.

Hardware Description

The accessory comprises a heating section and cooling section, which can be clamped together or clamped with interchangeable intermediate sections between them, as required. The temperature difference created by the application of heat to one end of the resulting wall and cooling at the other end results in the flow of heat linearly through the wall by conduction.

Thermocouples are positioned along both the heated section and cooled sections at uniform intervals of 15mm to measure the temperature gradient along the sections.

A pressure regulator is incorporated to minimise the effect of fluctuations in the supply pressure.

A control valve allows the flow of cooling water to be varied, if required, over the operating range of 0-1.5 l/min. The cooling water flow rate is measured by a turbine type flow sensor (HT11C only).

Four intermediate sections are supplied as follows:

  • 30mm-long brass section of the same diameter as the heating and cooling sections and fitted with two thermocouples at the same intervals. When this section is clamped between the heating and cooling sections, a long plane wall of uniform material and cross-section is created with temperatures measured at eight positions
  • Stainless-steel section of the same dimensions as the brass section to demonstrate the effect of change in thermal conductivity
  • Aluminium section of the same dimensions as the brass section to demonstrate the effect of change in thermal conductivity
  • 30mm-long brass section reduced in diameter to 13mm to demonstrate the effect of change in cross-sectional area
  • The heat-conducting properties of insulators may be found by simply inserting the paper or cork specimens supplied between the heating and cooling sections
  • A tube of thermal paste is provided to demonstrate the difference between good and poor thermal contact between the sections

Technical Specifications

Features & Benefits

Downloads

  •  Understanding the use of the Fourier rate equation in determining rate of heat flow through solid materials
  •  Measuring the temperature distribution for steady-state conduction of energy through a uniform plane wall and a composite plane wall
  •  Overall heat transfer coefficient for differing materials in series
  •  Determining the constant of proportionality (thermal conductivity k) of different materials (conductors and insulators)
  •  Relationship of temperature gradient to cross-sectional area
  •  Effect of contact resistance on thermal conduction
  •  Understanding the application of poor conductors (insulators)
  •  Observing unsteady-state conduction (qualitative only)

  •  A small-scale accessory to introduce students to the principles of linear heat conduction, and to enable the conductivity of various solid conductors and insulators to be measured
  •  Comprises a heating section, a cooling section, plus four intermediate section conductor samples and two insulator samples
  •  The heating section, cooling section and one of the intermediate sections are fitted with thermocouples (eight in total) evenly spread along the length of the assembled conduction path
  •  All sections are thermally insulated to minimise errors due to heat loss
  •  Includes a water pressure regulator and a manual flow control valve
  •  Computer-controlled unit includes an electronic proportioning solenoid valve to control the cooling water flow rate and a water flow meter
  •  Heater power variable up to 60W
  •  Water flow rate variable up to 1.5 l/min
  •  Heating and cooling sections, 25mm diameter
  •  A comprehensive instruction manual is included

Cold water supply: 1.5 l/min @ 1 bar

All electrical requirements are obtained from the service unit.

PACKED AND CRATED SHIPPING SPECIFICATIONS

HT11

Volume: 0.05m³

Gross Weight: 7Kg

HT11C

Volume: 0.05m³

Gross Weight: 10Kg

HT11 & HT11C

Length: 0.43m

Width: 0.21m

Height: 0.29m

HT11
HT11C

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