FE Series – Irrigation Water Management
FEL2 – Soil/Water Model Tank
The Armfield Ltd Surface Irrigation Apparatus, FEL2 has been developed to help students of irrigation understand more fully the interaction of factors which influence water movement both on the soil surface and in the soil profile. The equipment allows actual surface irrigation experiments to be performed on a small scale in the laboratory.
FEL3 – Rainfall Simulator
The FEL3 Simulator can also be used in the laboratory or in the field for a wide range of research from studies of infiltration under sprinkler irrigation to estimating soil loss in high intensity tropical storms. Erodibility of soils can be studied in the laboratory and the influence of crop cover on the effect of rainfall can also be investigated. It is ideal for investigating the relationship between rainfall and soil erosion, the nature of soil erosion potential on different soil types and identifying methods by which erosion may be prevented.
The simulator incorporates:
- Aperture adjustment
- Field and lab test plots
- Tilting stand
- Rain gauges
FEL4 – Soil Moisture Suction Sand Table
Primarily for the derivation of soil moisture characteristic curves, the FEL4 helps in understanding the principle of water retentivity and its relationship with soil moisture levels.
FEL5-MkII – Demonstration Infiltration Apparatus
A simple but effective laboratory demonstration of the infiltration processes, which are fundamental to any form of irrigation study.
The unit comprises three transparent cylinders in which soil samples are placed. Water poured onto the soil surface can then be observed as it infiltrates the sample.
FEL6 – Demonstration Lysimeter
The Armfield Lysimeter consists of three 300mm diameter containers in which a variety of crop types can be grown in any soil type.
Each container can then in turn be placed on a hydraulically mounted plate, which is used to monitor system weight changes arising from evapotranspiration, precipitation and drainage.
Despite its simplicity, the apparatus has a high degree of sensitivity and may be used for student project work as well as for demonstration purposes.
FEL10 – Drain Permeameter
The FEL10 Drain Permeameter apparatus provides the student with a way of studying the interactions between drains, soils and filters in the laboratory. The apparatus consists of a constant head permeator which allows the study of various combinations of soils, filters and drain types. Changes in permeability with time can be estimated by measuring the rate of drainage of water from the permeator. The part of the soil/ drain system which is changing its permeability can be inferred from the series of piezometer tubes which are connected to the cylinder of the permeator.
FEX26-1/2/3 – Parshall Flumes
Named after the inventor, this widely used flume causes little head loss and passes sediment readily. Constructed in GRP, flumes are supplied with measuring scales, spirit levels and calibration curves.
FEX26-4/5/6 – WSC Flumes
This trapezoidal design of flume, developed by Washington State College (WSC) for field irrigation, has the advantages over the rectangular flume of giving a greater depth range, of conforming more closely to the channel section and of allowing sediment to pass more freely.
FEX26-7 – Thin Plate Weirs & Accessories
Armfield Thin Plate Weirs are constructed of stainless steel and mounted on a painted weir plate carrier, which can set either into the banks and bed of a small stream or fixed to the end of a concrete channel. A simple head scale is attached to each weir plate but a stilling well can be fitted for greater accuracy.
FEX26-8 – Thin Plate Weirs & Accessories
Stilling well with depth gauge comprising hook and point gauge.
FEX26-9 – Channel Section
A lightweight channel section made from corrosion-resistant material with the provision for easy mounting of the FEX26-10/11.
FEX26-10 – Broad Crested Weir
Used for controlling upstream water levels and measuring discharge rate. The weir is set perpendicular to the flow across the channel bed. It is particularly useful in sediment-laden waters that can be detrimental to sharp edged weirs. Made from durable glass-reinforced plastic.
FEX26-11 – Crump Weir
Named after its designer, C S Crump, this broad-crested weir is triangular in section making it less likely to trap silt and debris. The weir is used for accurate measurement of discharge rates. Made from durable glass reinforced plastic.
FEX40-3/4 – Sluice Gates
The two types of adjustable sluice gate, undershot and overshot, are widely used for the control of water in canal systems. In the absence of more accurate devices they may be used for the approximation of flow rates.
FEX40-5/6/7 – Automatic Water Control Gates
Automatic control gates are used extensively in canal systems for regulating water levels and discharge. They are usually float operated and are designed to maintain constant levels in the canal so that discharges from offtakes can be kept at a constant known rate. Armfield are able to supply models of three types of commonly used gate:
FEX40-5 – Float Operated Radial Gate
FEX40-6 – Float Operated Tilting Gate
FEX40-7 – Float Operated Weir Gate